Air emissions:
Carbon dioxide (C02) is the main Green House Gas emitted by ships; other relevant substances include sulphur oxides (S02) and nitrogen oxides (N02).

Ballast water:
Water brought on board a vessel to increase the draft, change the trim, regulate the stability, or to maintain stress loads within acceptable limits. Ballast water discharge typically contains a variety of biological materials, including plants, animals, viruses, and bacteria. These materials often include non-native, nuisance, exotic species that can cause extensive ecological and economic damage to an aquatic ecosystem.

Member of the grass family and a major cereal grain. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread from various cultures. Other important uses include use as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods.

Is the term used in ports and harbours for a designated location where a vessel may be moored, usually for the purposes of loading and discharging cargo.

Bomb cart:
A trailer constructed to accommodate and haul a container when a truck chassis is attached to the cart. It allows for the quick load/discharge of containers at a marine container terminal.

The front section of a ship or boat.

Bunker fuel analyst:
A person who is responsible for the supply and quality of bunker fuels for the ships to ensure that they are suitable for burning in the vessels’ engines and auxiliaries and that they conform to required specification(s). If the bunker fuels used do not conform to required specification(s) or otherwise prove unsuitable for burning in a ship’s engines or auxiliaries there can be a reduction in the vessel’s speed performance and/or increased bunker consumption, or engine damage.

Brackish water:
Areas where freshwater meets saltwater, such as an estuary. Brackish or brack water is water with a level of salinity between freshwater and seawater. In many places around the world, brackish water appears naturally, and it forms an important habitat for some unique animal species.

A machine for loading and unloading palatalized or skidded products into containers or enclosed trailers

A vertical-axled rotating machine developed for use on sailing ships to apply force to ropes, cables, and hawsers.

Cargo Superintendent:
Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo-handling operations.

Canadian Border Service Personnel:
Officers of the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) work at marine container examination facilities in Halifax, Saint John, Montréal, Vancouver and Prince Rupert to facilitate the movement of legitimate goods into Canada. CBSA officers apply a risk management approach in the examination of all marine containers, ensuring the prosperity and security of Canadian businesses and residents. CBSA officers conducting container examinations do so with the utmost care, carefully noting the condition of the goods, any visible damage, and the depth and intensity of the examination. CBSA officers use X-ray machines and high-tech equipment such as the Ionscan to make the examinations less intrusive, more streamlined, and to reduce the risk of damage.

Capital goods:
Goods intended for use by businesses, government or the non-profit sector in production, rather than by consumers. Many goods are in fact capable of being used either for production or consumption.

Centre of buoyancy:
The point through which the resultant of all buoyant forces on an immersed hull are assumed to act; the centre of mass of the displaced water.

Centre of gravity:
That point in a body or system around which its mass or weight is evenly distributed or balanced and through which the force of gravity acts.

A simple closed curve that divides the plane into two regions: an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term “circle” may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure, or to the whole figure including its interior; in strict technical usage, the circle is the former and the latter is called a disk.

City Planner:
An individual who helps landowners and the community decide how to best use the land and resources with an eye toward future growth and sustainability.

Civil engineer:
is an individual trained in the subject matter of engineering sciences, related to the design, construction and maintenance of buildings, dams, bridges, tunnels, highways and other structures by the use of physical laws, mathematical equations and theories of mechanics. Civil Engineers use the available resources (expertise, materials, manpower) to complete the project in the given time span keeping in view the time, expenditure, environmental issues and physical hazards of the project.

Claims adjustor:
An individual who investigates insurance claims or claims for damages and then recommends an effective settlement.

Coast guard officer:
There are three types of coast guard officer:

a) Navigation Officers are responsible for the safe navigation of a ship. Under the supervision of the Chief Officer, Navigation Officers are responsible for all aspects of watch keeping.

b) Marine Engineers/ Officers, under the supervision of the Chief Engineer, keep vessels running. They operate, monitor and maintain the correct operation of a ship’s engines and associated machinery, including electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic pump, piping and fuel, air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. Intrinsic to these tasks is the responsibility to ensure the safe and efficient operation of all equipment on board.
c) Fleet Officers are highly motivated individuals, trained to be competent leaders for the Canadian Coast Guard Fleet.

Each of these officers helps the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) to maintain and operate a fleet that:

  • Assists thousands of vessels involved in commercial shipping, fishing and recreational boating;
  • Monitors mariners’ distress signals;
  • Coordinates and delivers Search and Rescue services;
  • Provides Icebreaking services;
  • Conducts science work;
  • Maintains Navigation Aids (buoys, beacons, channel markers); and
  • Assists in home land security.

Coast Guard vessel:
A vessel used by the Coast Guard for protecting the coast, carrying out rescues, or maintaining the aids to vessel navigation.

A basic good used in commerce that is interchangeable with other commodities of the same type. Commodities are most often used as inputs in the production of other goods or services. The quality of a given commodity may differ slightly, but it is essentially uniform across producers.

Compass rose:
Sometimes called windrose, a compass rose is a figure on a compass, map, nautical chart or monument used to display the orientation of the cardinal directions—North, East, South and West—and their intermediate points. It is also the term for the graduated markings found on the traditional magnetic compass. Today, a compass rose is found on, or featured in, almost all navigation systems, including nautical charts, non-directional beacons (NDB), VHF omnidirectional range (VOR) systems, global-positioning systems (GPS), and similar equipment and devices.

A solid (3-dimensional) object that has a circular base and one vertex.

Construction worker:
A person who works in the construction industry, especially one engaging in manual work as opposed to the planning or managing of a project.

Consumer goods:
Goods designed for and intended for use by final consumers. They are generally purchased by consumers.

Container (cans):
Standardized re-sealable transportation box for unitized freight handling with standardized equipment. The two most common sizes used in ground and sea (surface) transportation are (1) Twenty-footer (typical capacity 33.2 cubic meter or 1172 cubic feet, maximum payload 28180 kilogram or 62130 pounds) and (2) Forty-footer (typical capacity 67.7 cubic meter or 2392 cubic feet, maximum payload 28750 kilogram or 63380 pounds). The typical dimensions of a 20-foot container are: internal length 5.90 meter (19 feet 4 inches), internal width 2.35 meter (7 feet 9 inches), internal height 2.40 meter (7 feet 10 inches). For a 40-foot container they are: internal length 12.03 meter (39 feet 6 inches), internal width 2.35 meter (7 feet 9 inches), internal height 2.4 meter (7 feet 10 inches).

Container ship:
A ship that is designed to carry goods stowed in containers.

A common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials.

Covered hopper car:
A covered hopper is a railroad freight car designed for carrying dry bulk loads, varying from grain to products such as sand and clay. The cover protects the loads from the weather. Large unit trains of various grain crops, reaching up to 125 cars long, are a common sight in North America. These predominantly haul grain from the large farming areas of the Great Plains to various ports.

Crane operator:
An individual who has the necessary training, skills and certification to operate a range of crane types including different lifting capacities of mobile cranes, tower cranes, and self-erect cranes. In the port sector, specific training is required to operate a gantry crane at a marine container terminal.

A box-shaped solid object that has six identical square faces.

Customs Broker:
A profession that involves the “clearing” of goods through customs barriers for importers and exporters (usually businesses). This involves the preparation of documents and/or electronic submissions, the calculation and payment of taxes, duties and excises, and the facilitation of communication between government authorities and importers and exporters.

Customs officer:
A Canadian Border Service Agency (CBSA) officer is part of a team that protects the safety and security of Canada and Canadians, while ensuring the free flow of admissible people and goods across the border. CBSA’s officers welcome immigrants and refugees, process travellers and complete commercial releases, collect duties and taxes and administer import and export requirements for some 30,000 animals and plants. A CBSA officer’s work also includes using the latest technology and techniques to detect illegal drugs, prohibited firearms and harmful pests or diseases, and to stop them from entering our country.

A solid object with two identical flat ends that are circular or elliptical, and one curved side. It has the same cross-section from one end to the other.


Trends that describe the historical changes in the population over time (for example, the average age of a population may increase or decrease over time). Both distributions and trends of values within a demographic variable are of interest.

Demographic transition:
Is the process by which countries pass from a situation of high birth and death rate to one of low rates. More education and higher living standards reduce the birth rate and increase the age of life expectancy. As a result, the average age and affluence of the population increases and this affects the type of purchasing decisions made in the economy.

Also known as “specific gravity”. In physics, the lightness or heaviness of different substances is denoted by using the word density. The density of a substance is defined as the mass of the substance per unit volume. The density of water varies due to parameters such as temperature and salt content. Impurities also play a significant role in changing the density of water. The instrument to measure the density of a liquid is called a hydrometer.

Direct employment:
Direct employment includes employment generated directly by the marine terminals, and the Port Authority. For example, the direct employment impacts result from spending in the local area by the long shore labour force as well as spending in the local area for goods and services by Port Authority tenants, such as the marine terminals.

Distribution network:
Is the system a company uses to get products from the manufacturer to the retailer. A fast and reliable distribution network is essential to a successful business because customers must be able to get products and services when they want them.

Dock supervisor:
Supervises the loading and unloading of trucks transporting supplies, materials, equipment and cargo.

Drayage truck driver:
An individual who drives a truck for either pickup from or delivery to a seaport, border point, inland port, or intermodal terminal with both the trip origin and destination in the same urban area. In the shipping industry and logistics, drayage is the transport of goods over a short distance, often as part of a longer overall move and is typically completed in a single work shift.

Dry bulk carrier:
A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds.

Economic driver:
An aspect of the economy that effects a change in another aspect of supply and demand for goods and services. A driver is most commonly a factor that contributes to the growth of a particular economy.

One who installs, operates maintains or repairs electrical devices or electrical wiring.

Environment Canada Officer:
There are two designations of enforcement officers: Environmental Enforcement and Wildlife Enforcement. The former administers the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and the pollution provisions of the Fisheries Act and corresponding regulations. The latter enforces the Migratory Birds Convention Act, the Canada Wildlife Act, the Species at Risk Act and the Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act. All officers wear a dark green uniform with a black tie and a badge. Environmental Enforcement Officers only carry batons, whereas Wildlife Enforcement Officers are also equipped with firearms.

Environmental engineer:
An individual who integrates science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment to provide healthy water, air, and land for the habitation of humans and other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. In the port sector, the work also involves water management and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, industrial hygiene, and environmental sustainability, as well as the application of environmental engineering law. It also includes conducting studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects.

A state of balance or a stable situation where opposing forces cancel each other out and where no changes are occurring.

The part of the wide lower course of a river where its current is met by the tides, or an arm of the sea that extends inland to meet the mouth of a river. Estuaries support very rich ecosystems.

A function of international trade whereby goods produced in one country are shipped to another country for future sale or trade. The sale of such goods adds to the producing nation’s gross output. If used for trade, exports are exchanged for other products or services. Exports are one of the oldest forms of economic transfer, and occur on a large scale between nations.

Factors of production:
Any resource used in the production of goods and services. Factors of production can be broadly classified into three main groups: labour, or human services; capital, or man-made means of production; and land, or natural resources.

Freight truck:
A motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.

The distance between the water line and the freeboard deck of a ship.

Fresh water:
Water that is not salty (especially when considered as a natural resource).

Fisheries Habitat Officer:
A person responsible for the administration and enforcement of the provisions dealing with the physical alteration of fish habitat.

A person who fights fires.

Strength or energy exerted or brought to bear; cause of motion or change.

A truck that uses a forked device for lifting and transporting loads. The forks are placed underneath the load.

Gantry crane:
A crane with a bridge supported on two or more legs running parallel on fixed rails. It lifts objects by a hoist that is fitted in a hoist trolley, and can move horizontally on a rail or pair of rails fitted under a beam.

Gantry crane operator:
An individual who discharges and loads container vessels at a container terminal, following safety measures, precautions, operating principles and rules that ensure the safe and efficient use of the dock gantry crane.

Global production:
The different processes in different parts of the world that each adds value to the goods or services being produced. By joining a global value chain, enterprises have the ability to transform their businesses into international operations.

A commodity, or a physical, tangible item that satisfies some human want or need, or something that people find useful or desirable and make an effort to acquire. Goods that are scarce (are in limited supply in relation to demand) are called economic goods, whereas those whose supply is unlimited and that require neither payment nor effort to acquire (such as air) are called free goods.

A grain is a small, hard, dry seed (with or without hull or fruit layers attached) harvested for human food or animal feed. The plants producing such seeds are called ‘grains’ or ‘grain crops’

Grain elevator/vertical silo:
A structure for storing bulk materials. Silos are used in agriculture to store grain or fermented feed known as silage. Silos are more commonly used for bulk storage of grain, coal, cement, carbon black, woodchips, food products and sawdust. Three types of silos are in widespread use today – tower silos, bunker silos and bag silos.

Health Canada Officer:
Health Canada hires science specialists in a variety of disciplines to do research, regulatory work, and policy development. The following occupational groups are used, depending on the nature of the work involved:

  • Biological Sciences
  • Chemist
  • Engineering and Scientific Support
  • Medicine
  • Scientific Research
  • Scientific Regulation
  • Physical Sciences

Tilted temporarily by the pressure of wind or by an uneven distribution of weight on board a vessel. Heeling is the lean caused by the wind’s force on the vessel.

Hopper car:
A type of railroad freight car used to transport loose bulk commodities such as coal, ore, grain and track ballast. Two main types of hopper car exist: covered hopper cars, which are equipped with a roof, and open hopper cars, which do not have a roof.

Hump yard:
A classification yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railroad cars on to one of several tracks. First the cars are taken to a track, sometimes called a lead or a drill. From there the cars are sent through a series of switches, called a ladder, onto the classification tracks. Larger yards tend to put the lead on an artificially built hill called a hump to use the force of gravity to propel the cars through the ladder. The classic hump yard is simply a method of using gravity to sort and switch cars in a rail yard. Cars get pushed up the “hill” and are released at the top. At the bottom of the other side of the hill is a series of tracks with power switches that a Yard Master operates from a tower above the hill. As the cars roll down the hill, the yardmaster operates the switches so that each car glides into the track that he or she wants it to go into. The cars will usually travel at a speed that allows them to couple with other cars in the track. This is one method that a railway uses to sort cars into different destinations.

A product that is shipped into a country or region.

Inclined plane:
A plane set at an angle to the horizontal; a simple machine used to raise or lower a load by rolling or sliding.

Indirect employment:
Represents employment by firms primarily off the site of the port, but whose activities are attributable to the port; for example, the estimated flow of dollars generated from the supply of materials, goods and services attributable to the port and its tenants.

Induced employment:
The employment multiplier effects (number of jobs) caused by successive rounds of spending through the economy as a result of the port’s direct and indirect effects. For example, employees use their salaries and wages to purchase goods and services from other businesses. Businesses make their own purchases and hire employees who in turn make their own purchases. In the input-output method, the port’s total economic impact is the sum of the direct, indirect and induced effects.

Insurance agent/broker:
An individual who sells, solicits, or negotiates insurance for compensation.

International trade:
The exchange of goods or services along international borders. This type of trade allows for a greater competition and more competitive pricing in the market. The competition results in more affordable products for the consumer. The exchange of goods also affects the economy of the world as dictated by supply and demand, making goods and services obtainable which may not otherwise be available to consumers globally.

A simple machine consisting of a rigid bar pivoted on a fixed point and used to transmit force, as in raising or moving a weight at one end by pushing down on the other.

Liquid waste:
The discharge of (black water, or grey water) sewage into the sea.

A vessel’s angle of lean or tilt to one side, in the direction called roll. Typically refers to a lean caused by flooding or improperly loaded or shifted cargo.

Local production:
Is the manufacturing or production of a good or service within a defined geographic area in near proximity as compared to a good or service produced farther away.

Log grappler:
A device consisting of two or more hinged, movable iron prongs for grasping and moving heavy objects.

Angle of loll, a specific hydrostatic stability condition experienced by unstable vessels at sea.

Longshore worker/stevedore:
A person who loads and discharges cargo and/or passengers from a ship, using knowledge of the operation of loading equipment, the proper techniques for lifting and stowing cargo, and the correct handling of hazardous materials. A stevedore, dockworker, docker, dock labourer, and longshore worker can have various waterfront-related responsibilities concerning loading and unloading ships, according to place and country.

A worker who fabricates, assembles, or repairs machinery.

Marine pilot:
Is the experienced and professional licensed mariner whose role is to advise the Captain of a ship on the safest route to be taken to bring a vessel into its port of call. Although Captains are familiar with their own vessel and crew, they are not necessarily familiar with every port their vessels visit and so they require the local expertise of a Marine Pilot to ensure that their ship, its crew, passengers and cargo arrive at their port of call in a safe and efficient manner. Marine Pilots are intimately familiar with the coastlines, inland waters, shoals, harbours, ports, weather, tides, shipping regulations and restrictions of the area for which they are licensed and use their experience to prevent vessels from grounding on shoals or colliding with other vessels. Marine Pilots are also familiar with the different propulsion systems, hull designs, and rudder characteristics of various types of ships and how these will react at different speeds and in different wind, tidal and current conditions.

Marine engineer:
Is responsible for all heavy machinery on a ship or an offshore structure at a marine terminal.

Marine surveyor:
A person who inspects or examines marine vessels to assess and make reports on their condition. This is done to make sure that they meet certain standards or specifications. Marine surveyors usually work in the shipping logistics and repair, marine and engineering consultancy, and public safety industries.

Marine terminal:
That part of a port or harbour with facilities for docking, cargo handling, and storage.

In physics, the quantity of matter in a body regardless of its volume or of any forces acting on it. The term should not be confused with weight, which is the measure of the force of gravity acting on a body. Under ordinary conditions the mass of a body can be considered to be constant; its weight, however, is not constant, since the force of gravity varies from place to place. There are two ways of referring to mass, depending on the law of physics defining it: gravitational mass and inertial mass. The gravitational mass of a body may be determined by comparing the body on a beam balance with a set of standard masses; in this way the gravitational factor is eliminated. The inertial mass of a body is a measure of the body’s resistance to acceleration by some external force.

A worker skilled in making, using, or repairing machines, vehicles, and tools.

Merchant vessel:
A ship that transports cargo or passengers.

A maritime meteorologist deals with air and wave forecasts for ships operating at sea.

The middle part of a ship or boat.

The act of making a condition or consequence less severe.

Multinational corporation:
A firm conducting business in more than one country, through branches or subsidiary companies. Many large firms are multinationals, and a considerable amount of international trade is between multinational corporations and their own foreign branches, or subsidiaries.

Natural resource:
A material source of wealth, such as timber, fresh water, or a mineral deposit, that occurs in a natural state and has economic value.

Navigation channel:
A deeper channel cut into the sea or riverbed, to enable larger ships to pass through to a marine terminal.

Oil spill:
The release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity. The term is usually applied to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters, but spills may also occur on land.

Plimsoll Line:
Is the line where the hull of a ship meets the surface of the water, in concept or reality. Specifically, it is also the name of a special marking, also known as the International Load Line or water line (positioned amidships), that indicates the draft of the ship and the legal limit to which a ship may be loaded for specific water types and temperatures in order to safely maintain buoyancy, particularly with regard to the hazard of waves that may arise. Temperature affects the level because warm water provides less buoyancy, being less dense than cold water. Similarly, salinity affects the level because fresh water is less dense than salty seawater. The purpose of a load line is to ensure that a ship has sufficient freeboard (the height from the water line to the main deck) and thus sufficient reserve buoyancy

The side of a ship or aircraft that is on the left when one is facing forward.

Port Authority manager:
Responsible for marine management tasks that form part of either a national maritime administration or of a public port authority. Also, an individual responsible for the commercial and infrastructure development and business operations of the port.

Post-War boom:
The post–World War II economic expansion, also known as the postwar economic boom, the long boom, and the Golden Age of Capitalism, was a period of economic prosperity in the mid-20th century, that occurred mainly in western countries following the end of World War II in 1945, and that lasted until the early 1970s. It ended with the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971, the 1973 oil crisis, and the 1973–1974 stock market crash, which led to the 1970s recession. Narrowly defined, the period spanned from 1945 to 1952, with overall growth lasting well until 1971. During this time there was high worldwide economic growth; Western European and East Asian countries in particular experienced unusually high and sustained growth, together with full employment.

Pollution prevention:
The use of processes, practices, materials, products, substances or energy that avoid or minimize the creation of pollutants and waste and reduce the overall risk to the environment or human health. Pollution prevention planning is a systematic, comprehensive method of identifying and implementing pollution prevention options to minimize or avoid the creation of pollutants or waste. The plan would also identify recycling, treatment and other measures needed to meet environmental goals.

Something produced by human or mechanical effort or by a natural process.

Product innovation:
Innovations where a new or improved product is introduced. This is contrasted with process innovation, where an existing product is made in a new and cheaper way. Many innovations involve both new products and new processes.

Project manager:
A professional in the field of project management. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution and closing of any project. The role is most commonly found in architecture, computer networking, telecommunications or software development, and construction industry sectors.

Public Relations:
Is the practice of managing the flow of information between an individual or an organization and the public. The aim of public relations activities by a company is often to persuade the public, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders to maintain a certain point of view about the company, and its leadership, products, or political decisions.

A solid object where the base is a polygon (a straight-sided shape) and the sides are triangles which meet at the top (the apex).

A simple machine consisting essentially of a wheel with a grooved rim in which a pulled rope or chain can run to change the direction of the pull and thereby lift a load.

Railroad engineer:
A railroad engineer, locomotive engineer, train operator, train driver or engine driver is a person who operates a train on a railroad or railway. The locomotive /railroad engineer is in charge of and responsible for driving the locomotive(s) as well as the mechanical operation of the train, train speed, and all train handling. The use of the term “Engineer” to describe this occupation should not be confused with professional engineer.

Rail yard:
A series of railroad tracks for storing, sorting, or loading/unloading railroad cars and/or locomotives.

Railway locomotive:
A wheeled vehicle consisting of a self-propelled engine that is used to draw trains along railway tracks.

Raw material:
The basic material from which a product is made.

A 4-sided flat shape with straight sides where all interior angles are right angles (90°). Opposite sides of a rectangle are parallel and of equal length.

A source or supply from which benefit is derived/produced. Typically, resources are materials, money, services, staff, or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable. Benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth, meeting needs or wants, proper functioning of a system, and enhanced wellbeing. From a human perspective, a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective, a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism.

Rotational equilibrium:
When there is no force acting to make a body turn, the body is in rotational equilibrium.

Safety and Security Officer:
A person responsible for ensuring that safety and security regulations are adhered to, and for assessing unsafe situations, hazards or security threats at a marine terminal or onboard a ship.

Salt water:
Normally, water with a salinity of 35 parts per thousand (3.5%) that is in or that comes from the sea or ocean. Although seawater contains more than 70 elements, most seawater salts are ions of six major elements: chloride, sodium, sulphate, magnesium, calcium, and potassium. The major sources of these salts are underwater volcanic eruptions, chemical reactions involving volcanic matter, and chemical weathering of rocks on the coasts.

A simple machine of the inclined plane type consisting of a spirally grooved solid cylinder and a correspondingly grooved hollow cylinder into which it fits.

Shipping agent:
Is the name for a person or agency responsible for handling shipments and cargo at ports and harbours worldwide on behalf of shipping companies. There are several categories of shipping agent, including, port agents and liner agents. Each renders specific services depending on the shipping company they represent. Shipping agents ensure that essential supplies, crew transfers, customs documentation and waste declarations are all arranged with the port authorities without delay. Quite often, they also provide the shipping company with updates and reports on activities at the destination port so that shipping companies have up-to-the minute information available to them at all times while goods are in transit.

A 3-dimensional object shaped like a ball. Every point on the surface is the same distance from the center.

A 4-sided flat shape with straight sides where all sides have equal length and every angle is a right angle (90°).

A stacker is a large machine used in bulk material handling. Its function is to pile bulk material such as limestone, ores and coal on to a stockpile. A reclaimer can be used to recover the material.

Standard of living:
The economic component of people’s welfare. This is often measured by consumption per person. This is not a perfect welfare measure for a number of reasons. For example, it does not take into account environmental impacts such as pollution.

The side of a ship or aircraft on the right when one is facing forward.

The rearmost part of a ship or boat.

Is an ethic that embodies the responsible planning and management of resources.

Supply chain:
Is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the provision of product and service packages required by the end customers in a supply chain. Supply chain management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption.

Surface transportation:
The movement of people or goods by road, train, or ship, rather than by plane.

Transport mode:
Means by which a shipment is moved from point ‘A’ to point ‘B’, for example by air, rail, road, or sea.

Top lift:
A truck used at a marine container terminal or railway yard for lifting and transporting loads. The lifting device works with the top of a container to lift and carry the load.

A twisting force that tends to cause rotation.

Trade liberalization:
The process of reducing or removing restrictions on international trade. This may include the reduction or removal of tariffs, the abolition or enlargement of import quotas, and the removal of requirements for administrative permits for imports. The main argument for trade liberalization is that exposing a country’s economy to international competition makes for greater efficiency.

Transport Canada Marine Safety Officer:
A person entrusted to conduct the responsibilities associated with marine safety programs to provide Canadians with a safe and efficient marine transportation system worthy of public confidence. Broad areas of marine safety activity include setting standards for vessels, crew, and equipment, and monitoring compliance of the rules by both Canadian and foreign flagged vessels.

A person who helps people who speak different languages to communicate with each other or who takes something (such as a speech or a book) in one language and puts it into a another language.

A 3-sided polygon (a flat shape with straight sides).

Truck driver:
See drayage truck driver.

Tug boat:
Is a vessel that manoeuvres ships or barges by pushing or towing them. Tugs move vessels that either should not move themselves, such as ships in a crowded harbour or a confined waterway, or those that cannot move by themselves, such as barges, disabled ships, log rafts, or oil platforms. Tugboats are powerful for their size and strongly built, and some are ocean going. Some tugboats serve as icebreakers or salvage boats.

Tug boat captain:
The most senior officer onboard a tugboat. The captain is responsible for ensuring the safety of all on-board personnel, maintaining and repairing the vessel’s mechanical systems, navigating tight courses in inclement weather, and meeting strict landing schedules or harbour towage assignments.

Tug boat 1st mate:
The officer of a merchant vessel (in this example a tug boat), next in command to the captain.

Vessel traffic officer:
Marine Communications and Traffic Services Officers (MCTSO’s) are skilled in a variety of disciplines, including transportation systems, marine safety and public communications, and shore-based radar surveillance traffic regulating. MCTSO’s are designated Marine Traffic Regulators (MTRs) by the Commissioner of the Canadian Coast Guard through a Certification Training Program.

Is the space occupied by a material or object. Volume is measured in units that reflect a three-dimensional form, e.g. cubic metres, cubic feet, and cubic miles. Volume can be determined by direct measurement or by displacement (as in a liquid). The volume of a gas will vary by its pressure, and liquid and solid volumes normally increase (somewhat) with increased temperature, reflecting a decreased density.

Warehouse supervisor:
Is responsible for supervising every task that goes on in a warehouse. This includes the receiving, handling, storing and distribution of goods and materials. Warehouse managers must have strong inventory control skills and be able to provide and maintain overall warehouse efficiency.

The line on the hull of a ship to which the surface of the water rises. Also, any of several lines parallel to this line, marked on the hull of a ship, indicating the depth to which the ship sinks under various loads.

Any of the various annual cereal grasses of the genus Triticum. It is, widely cultivated in many varieties throughout the temperate regions for its commercially important edible grain. “Wheat” also refers to the grain of any of these grasses that can be ground to produce flour used to make bread products and pasta.

A piece of a substance (such as wood or iron) that tapers to a thin edge and is used for splitting wood and rocks, raising heavy bodies, or for tightening by being driven into something. A type of simple machine.

A person who welds, especially as a profession. In engineering and metallurgy, welding is a technique in which metals are joined together by heat generated by an electric arc struck between two electrodes, or between one electrode and the metal work piece.

Wheel and axel:
A simple machine consisting of an axle to which a wheel is fastened so that torque applied to the wheel winds a rope or chain onto the axle, yielding a mechanical advantage equal to the ratio of the diameter of the wheel to that of the axle.

An apparatus for moving heavy weights. Typically, a windlass consists of a horizontal cylinder (barrel), which is rotated by the turn of a crank or belt. A winch is fixed to one or both ends, and a cable or rope is wound around the winch, pulling a weight attached to the opposite end.

X-ray machine:
Device that produces visual images generated by electromagnetic radiation.